The Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs

Current Issue

March 2021, Volume 40, Issue 3

The March issue (40:3) features a special section on ‘Alcohol trends and policies in the wider world ‐ beyond a Eurocentric view’. This includes an editorial and research on Former Soviet Union countries, India, Latin America and the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa.

There is a seond editorial on alcohol marketing and social media. This issue also includes a range of alcohol related research from around the world, with papers on alcohol industry, corporate social responsibility and country features in Latin America; alcohol‐attributed disease burden in four Nordic countries between 2000 and 2017; on‐ and off‐licensed premises drinking behaviour among adults in the city of Tshwane, South Africa; prevalence of drink‐driving in Thimphu, Bhutan; alcohol retail privatisation in Canadian provinces between 2012 and 2017; evaluation of an alcohol policy measure employing a randomised controlled trial design; whether the theory of collectivity of drinking cultures is valid across educational groups; decline in alcohol consumption in Russia; public opinion and experiences of crime two and five years following the implementation of a targeted regulation of licensed premises in Newcastle, Australia; the association of acute alcohol use and dynamic suicide risk with variation in onward care after psychiatric crisis; and a letter on the alcohol industry ‘smart affordability’ strategy is to reach the poor.






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Comprehensive Review

The effectiveness of technology‐based interventions for smoking cessation: An umbrella review and quality assessment of systematic reviews
Amanual Getnet Mersha, Michelle Bovill, Parivash Eftekhari, Daniel Asfaw Erku, Gillian S. Gould
6 April 2021 | DOI:

Communication of health risk in substance‐dependent populations: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials
Melvin C. W. Goh, Peter J. Kelly, Frank P. Deane, Dayle K. Raftery, Isabella Ingram
9 February 2021 | DOI:


The role of alcohol use in the aetiology and progression of liver disease: A narrative review and a quantification
Jürgen Rehm, Jayadeep Patra, Alan Brennan, Charlotte Buckley, Thomas K. Greenfield, William C. Kerr, Jakob Manthey, Robin C. Purshouse, Pol Rovira, Paul A. Shuper, Kevin D. Shield
30 March 2021 | DOI:

Advancing the science on cannabis concentrates and behavioural health
L. Cinnamon Bidwell, Renée Martin‐Willett, Hollis C. Karoly
30 March 2021 | DOI:

Alcohol control policies in Former Soviet Union countries: A narrative review of three decades of policy changes and their apparent effects
Maria Neufeld, Anastacia Bobrova, Kairat Davletov, Mindaugas Štelemėkas, Relika Stoppel, Carina Ferreira‐Borges, João Breda, Jürgen Rehm
5 November 2020 | DOI:

Original Papers

Prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence in an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander representative sample: Using the Grog Survey App
Teagan J. Weatherall, James H. Conigrave, Katherine M. Conigrave, Jimmy Perry, Scott Wilson, Robin Room, Michelle S. Fitts, Noel Hayman, K. S. Kylie Lee
25 April 2021 | DOI:

Effects of self‐control, drug‐use peers and family attachment on drug use among Chinese users: A gender‐specific analysis
Serena Yunran Zhang, Jakob Demant
15 April 2021 | DOI:

Validation of the French version of the Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test—Revised and comparison with the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test for screening cannabis use disorder in a psychiatric sample
Amandine Luquiens, Aurélie Berger‐Viergat, Agathe Larrieu, Laura Artigaud, Clémentine Fener, Simon Adamson, Vincent Laprévote, Benjamin Rolland
14 April 2021 | DOI:

The role of cannabis in pain management among people living with HIV who use drugs: A qualitative study
Koharu Loulou Chayama, Jenna Valleriani, Cara Ng, Rebecca Haines‐Saah, Rielle Capler, M.‐J. Milloy, Will Small, Ryan McNeil
11 April 2021 | DOI:

‘Money up in smoke’: The financial benefits of smoking cessation may be more motivating to people who are homeless than potential health gains
Cheneal Puljević, Aaron Snoswell, Lorena Rivas, Mohammed M. Ali, Wouter de Greef, Jason Ferris, Coral Gartner
7 April 2021 | DOI:

Increasing compliance with alcohol service laws in community sporting clubs in Australia
Peter Kremer, Nicholas Crooks, Bosco Rowland, Jessica Hall, John W. Toumbourou
5 April 2021 | DOI:

Feasibility and pilot efficacy of cognitive remediation for people in residential substance use treatment
Julaine Allan, Anna Thompson, Molly Carlyle, Matthew Thomas, Alice Medalia
29 March 2021 | DOI:

New Zealand roll‐your‐own smokers' reaction to novel roll‐your‐own tobacco packaging warning labels
Mei‐Ling Blank, Janet Hoek, Philip Gendall
28 March 2021 | DOI:

The geographic distribution of retail tobacco outlets in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Christopher N. Morrison, Juliet P. Lee, Daniel P. Giovenco, Brooke West, Irma Hidayana, Putu A. S. Astuti, Stephen J. Mooney, Ahuva Jacobowitz, Andrew Rundle
28 March 2021 | DOI:

Understanding non‐installers of the ignition interlock device: A qualitative analysis
Ann M. Romosz, Michael Scherer, Robert B. Voas, Eduardo Romano, Thomas H. Nochajski, Eileen P. Taylor, Meg R. Brogdale, Amy R. Manning
25 March 2021 | DOI:

The non‐government alcohol and other drug workforce in Australia: Findings from a national survey
Ann M. Roche, Natalie Skinner
16 March 2021 | DOI:

Quantifying nicotine and alcohol consumption in New Zealand using wastewater‐based epidemiology timed to coincide with census
Sam Trowsdale, Mackay Price, Chris Wilkins, Ben Tscharke, Jochen Mueller, Tom Baker
14 March 2021 | DOI:

Trends in adolescent alcohol and other risky health‐ and school‐related behaviours and outcomes in Australia
Rakhi Vashishtha, Amy Pennay, Paul M. Dietze, Michael Livingston
14 March 2021 | DOI:

Impact of body mass and alcohol consumption on all‐cause and liver mortality in 240 000 adults in the United States
Jayadeep Patra, Charlotte Buckley, William C. Kerr, Alan Brennan, Robin C. Purshouse, Jürgen Rehm
8 March 2021 | DOI:

A multi‐methods yarn about SMART Recovery: First insights from Australian Aboriginal facilitators and group members
Elizabeth Dale, K. S. Kylie Lee, Katherine M. Conigrave, James H. Conigrave, Rowena Ivers, Kathleen Clapham, Peter J. Kelly
8 March 2021 | DOI:

Using social media comments to reduce alcohol purchase intentions: An online experiment
Jonathan K. Noel
7 March 2021 | DOI:

Characterising the patterns of and factors associated with increased alcohol consumption since COVID‐19 in a UK sample
Melissa Oldham, Claire Garnett, Jamie Brown, Dimitra Kale, Lion Shahab, Aleksandra Herbec
3 March 2021 | DOI:

Examining untreated and treated alcohol problem resolution in an Australian online survey sample
Richard Mellor, Kari Lancaster, Alison Ritter
1 March 2021 | DOI:

The longitudinal relationship between cannabis use and hypertension
Ahmed Haleem, Yoseob Joseph Hwang Tara Elton‐Marshall Jürgen Rehm Sameer Imtiaz
28 February 2021 | DOI:

Costing alcohol‐related assault in the night‐time economy from a societal perspective: The case of Central Sydney
Simon Deeming, Kypros Kypri
25 February 2021 | DOI:

Trends in cocaine use, markets and harms in Australia, 2003–2019
Nicola Man, Agata Chrzanowska, Olivia Price, Raimondo Bruno, Paul M. Dietze, Scott A. Sisson, Louisa Degenhardt, Caroline Salom, Leith Morris, Michael Farrell, Amy Peacock
24 February 2021 | DOI:

Awareness of fentanyl exposure and the associated overdose risks among people who inject drugs in a Canadian setting
Kanna Hayashi, Evan Wood, Huiru Dong, Jane A. Buxton, Nadia Fairbairn, Kora DeBeck, M.‐J. Milloy, Thomas Kerr
18 February 2021 | DOI:

The Canadian Alcohol Policy Evaluation project: Findings from a review of provincial and territorial alcohol policies
Kate Vallance, Tim Stockwell, Ashley Wettlaufer, Clifton Chow, Norman Giesbrecht, Nicole April, Mark Asbridge Russell Callaghan Samantha Cukier, Geoff Hynes, Robert Mann, Robert Solomon, Gerald Thomas, Kara Thompson
4 February 2021 | DOI:

‘Very demanding. Extremely rewarding’: Exploring the co‐occurrence of burnout and engagement in alcohol and other drug workers
Natalie Skinner, Ann M. Roche
3 February 2021 | DOI:

Understanding local government responses to alcohol‐related harm
Miranda Guizzo, Bernadette Ward, Claire Wilkinson, Hassan Vally, Sandra Kuntsche
1 February 2021 | DOI:

Substance use disorder and the baby boom generation: Does Berlin outpatient addiction care face a sustained change?
Sara Specht, Barbara Braun‐Michl, Larissa Schwarzkopf, Daniela Piontek, Nicki‐Nils Seitz, Manfred Wildner, Ludwig Kraus
28 January 2021 | DOI:

Smokeless tobacco policy in Bangladesh: A stakeholder study of compatibility with the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
Eva Naznin, Olivia Wynne, Johnson George, Alexandra M. J. Denham, Mohammad E. Hoque, Abul H. Milton, Billie Bonevski, Kay Stewart
20 January 2021 | DOI:

The prospective impact of 10‐day patron bans on crime in Queensland's largest entertainment precincts
Nicholas Taylor, Kerri Coomber, Renee Zahnow, Jason Ferris, Richelle Mayshak, Peter G. Miller
27 December 2020 | DOI:

Self‐care agency and self‐care practice in youth workers reduces burnout risk and improves compassion satisfaction
Karen T. Hallam, Danielle Leigh, Cassandra Davis, Nathan Castle, Jenny Sharples, James D. Collett
23 December 2020 | DOI:

Are changes in binge drinking among European adolescents driven by changes in computer gaming?
Torleif Halkjelsvik, Geir S. Brunborg, Elin K. Bye
13 December 2020 | DOI:

Online alcohol delivery is associated with heavier drinking during the first New Zealand COVID‐19 pandemic restrictions
Taisia Huckle, Karl Parker, Jose S. Romeo, Sally Casswell
30 November 2020 | DOI:

An examination of the extent to which drinking motives and problem alcohol consumption vary as a function of deprivation, gender and age
Derek Heim, Rebecca L. Monk, Adam W. Qureshi
26 November 2020 | DOI:

Crystal methamphetamine use among young people entering custody: Prevalence, correlates and comorbidity
Sharlene Kaye, Amy Lewandowski, Julia Bowman, Michael F. Doyle
5 November 2020 | DOI:


Exploiting motherhood: Do mummy drinking sites offer real support or are they mainly alcohol marketing?
Linda M. Bosma, Norman Giesbrecht, Anne‐Marie Laslett
5 April 2021 | DOI:

Why did New Zealand's referendum to legalise recreational cannabis fail?
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
7 March 2021 | DOI:

Moving away from piecemeal trends: The need for multiple data sources in drug use trend analyses
Joseph J. Palamar
18 February 2021 | DOI:

Brief Reports

Alcohol and other drug health‐care providers and their client's perceptions of e‐cigarette use, safety and harm reduction
Eliza Skelton, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Flora Tzelepis, Scott Walsberger, Christine L. Paul, Adrian J. Dunlop, Kerrin Palazzi, Billie Bonevski
28 March 2021 | DOI:

The alcohol advertising ban in Norway: Effects on recorded alcohol sales
Ingeborg Rossow
24 March 2021 | DOI:

Concordance between self‐reported and current hepatitis C virus infection status in a sample of people who inject drugs in Sydney and Canberra, Australia
Daisy Gibbs, Jason Grebely, Rachel Sutherland, Sarah Larney, Kerryn Butler, Paul M. Dietze, Mitchell Starr, Amy Peacock
23 March 2021 | DOI:

Attitudinal factors associated with drink counting
Leon Booth, Michelle I. Jongenelis, Catherine Drane, Peter G. Miller, Tanya Chikritzhs, Penelope Hasking, Gerard Hastings, Michael Thorn, Simone Pettigrew
14 March 2021 | DOI:

Could a drug‐checking service increase intention to use ecstasy at a festival?
Sherri Murphy, Stephen J. Bright, Greg Dear
7 March 2021 | DOI:

Non‐medical prescription opioid use and in‐hospital illicit drug use among people who use drugs
Gurjit S. Parmar, Kanna Hayashi, Seonaid Nolan, M.‐J. Milloy, Kora DeBeck, Hennady P. Shulha, Thomas Kerr, Lianping Ti
4 February 2021 | DOI:

Implications of addiction diagnosis and addiction beliefs for public stigma: A cross‐national experimental study
Samantha M. Rundle, John A. Cunningham, Christian S. Hendershot
25 January 2021 | DOI:

Patterns of methamphetamine production among an international sample of methamphetamine ‘cooks’
Cheneal Puljević, Renee Zahnow, Isabella Benfer, Adam R. Winstock, Larissa J. Maier, Monica J. Barratt, Jason Ferris
10 November 2020 | DOI:

The acute and repeated effects of cigarette smoking and smoking‐related cues on impulsivity
Suky Martinez, Jermaine D. Jones, Nehal P. Vadhan, Laura Brandt, Sandra D. Comer, Adam Bisaga
2 November 2020 | DOI:


Special Issue - Beyond self-reports: ways to obtain more comprehensive insights into substance use events

The identification of artefacts in reporting of drug‐induced deaths using structural breaks analysis of time series statistics
Benjamin Petruželka, Viktor Mravčík, Miroslav Barták, Thomas F. Babor
20 April 2021 | DOI:

Alcohol and cocaine use prior to suspected suicide: Insights from toxicology
James Bailey, Nicola J. Kalk, Rebecca Andrews, Sarah Yates, Limon Nahar, Michael Kelleher, Susan Paterson
14 March 2021 | DOI:

Effects of stomach content on the breath alcohol concentration‐transdermal alcohol concentration relationship
Emily B. Saldich, Chunming Wang, I. Gary Rosen, Jay Bartroff, Susan E. Luczak
12 March 2021 | DOI:

How intoxicated are you? Investigating self and observer intoxication ratings in relation to blood alcohol concentration
Lauren A. Monds, Benjamin C. Riordan, Jayde A. M. Flett, Tamlin S. Conner, Paul Haber, Damian Scarf
24 January 2021 | DOI:

The value of identification scanner technology in monitoring and detecting banned patrons in entertainment precincts
Dominique de Andrade, Cheneal Puljević, Peter G. Miller, Nicholas Taylor, Ashlee Curtis, Jason Ferris
9 December 2020 | DOI:

Shooting shots: Estimating alcoholic drink sizes in real life using event‐level reports and annotations of close‐up picturesShooting shots: Estimating alcoholic drink sizes in real life using event‐level reports and annotations of close‐up pictures
Florian Labhart, Thanh‐Trung Phan, Daniel Gatica‐Perez, Emmanuel Kuntsche
17 November 2020 | DOI:

Combining transdermal and breath alcohol assessments, real‐time drink logs and retrospective self‐reports to measure alcohol consumption and intoxication across a multi‐day music festival
Thomas Norman, Amy Peacock, Stuart G. Ferguson, Emmanuel Kuntsche, Raimondo Bruno
10 November 2020 | DOI:

Feasibility and reliability of continuously monitoring alcohol use among female adolescents and young adults
Julie M. Croff, Micah L. Hartwell, Ashleigh L. Chiaf, Erica K. Crockett, Isaac J. Washburn
17 March 2020 | DOI:


Special Issue - Methamphetamine

Trends in treatment episodes for methamphetamine smoking and injecting in Australia, 2003–2019
Rebecca McKetin, Agata Chrzanowska, Nicola Man, Amy Peacock, Rachel Sutherland, Louisa Degenhardt
28 February 2021 | DOI:

A prospective cohort of people who use methamphetamine in Melbourne and non‐metropolitan Victoria, Australia: Baseline characteristics and correlates of methamphetamine dependence
Brendan Quinn, Bernadette Ward, Paul A. Agius, Rebecca Jenkinson, Matthew Hickman, Keith Sutton, Cristal Hall, Rebecca McKetin, Michael Farrell, Reece Cossar, Paul M. Dietze
11 November 2020 | DOI:

Parent and child co‐resident status among an Australian community‐based sample of methamphetamine smokers
Bernadette Ward, Rebecca Kippen, Andrea Reupert, Darryl Maybery, Paul A. Agius, Brendan Quinn, Rebecca Jenkinson, Matthew Hickman, Keith Sutton, Rachael Goldsmith, Paul M. Dietze
8 September 2020 | DOI:

Clinical and demographic characteristics of people who smoke versus inject crystalline methamphetamine in Australia: Findings from a pharmacotherapy trial
Rebecca McKetin, Brendan Quinn, Peter Higgs, Michael Berk, Olivia M. Dean, Alyna Turner, Peter J. Kelly, Dan I. Lubman, Gregory Carter, Amanda L. Baker, Victoria Manning, Tamsin Thomas, Ramez Bathish, Dayle Raftery, Lucy Saunders, Anna Wrobel, Alcyone Meehan, Barbara Sinclair, David Reid, Shalini Arunogiri, Harry Hill, Frank Cordaro, Paul M. Dietze
6 October 2020 | DOI:


Letters to the Editor

Initial experience with subcutaneous depot buprenorphine in a medically supervised injecting facility
Anthony Weeks, Shelley Cogger, Nico Clark
6 April 2021 | DOI:

Should we be using e‐vouchers to compensate research participants? Acceptability among opioid agonist treatment clients
Daniel T. Winter, Natalie White, Brennan Geiger, Paul S. Haber, Carolyn A. Day
25 March 2021 | DOI:

Acute tramadol withdrawal: An unusual cause of severe acute behavioural disturbance
Keith Harris, Georgia R. Harburg, Katherine Z. Isoardi
26 October 2020 | DOI:


Clinician's Corner - April 2021

DAR Front Cover

Clinician's Corner | April 2021       

Routine outcome measurement in specialist non-government alcohol and other drug treatment services: Establishing effectiveness indicators for the NADA base



Routine outcome measurement (ROM) is increasingly promoted for use within mental health [1] and alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment settings [2-4]. Measures used for ROM are considered an important component of individual client care, with evidence that the use of ROM improves treatment adherence and enhances client outcomes [4-6]. From an organisational perspective, ROM is considered a core component of quality assurance approaches, particularly as it can be used for comparative benchmarking. To improve the use of benchmarking and quality improvement initiatives in the field, it is important that service providers have access to representative data that they can use to make comparisons against. This data is often referred to as “effectiveness indicators”. The purpose of the current study was to establish these effectiveness indicators for use by Australian AOD treatment providers [7].

The Network of Alcohol and Other Drugs Agencies (NADA) is the peak body representing non-government AOD treatment services in New South Wales. Members of NADA are able to capture their ROM data in an electronic database called ‘NADAbase’. As data have been routinely collected within the NADAbase since 2010 [see 8, 9], it provided an opportunity to establish effectiveness indicators. Using similar procedures established within the Australian mental health care system [10], the current study established effectiveness indicators by identifying effect sizes, standard error of measurement, and rates of reliable and clinically significant change [7]. These were calculated for measures of symptom distress (Kessler-10), substance dependence (Substance Dependence Scale) and quality of life (EUROHIS Quality of Life Scale).

Effectiveness indicators were established for the total sample (21,572 unique participants), as well as for people attending residential rehabilitation (n = 8161) and community-based (n = 10,306) treatment services. It is hoped that individual organisations and service providers will use the methods outlined in the paper [7], and the effectiveness indicators reported in the paper, to conduct their own internal benchmarking and quality improvement initiatives. The benefits to individual organisations from conducting internal benchmarking, such as identifying the proportion of participants who demonstrate change across their services (i.e. deterioration or improvement), are tangible and achievable. It will assist providers of AOD treatment to embed regular monitoring and exploration of the outcomes data they collect and encourage a responsive approach to shaping the treatment being offered to individual client needs.

Establishing effectiveness indicators is a relatively straightforward process. All of the effectiveness indicators reported in the article (i.e. effect sizes, standard error of measurement, reliable change and clinical change) can be calculated following the methods outlined in this paper [7] and using standard spreadsheets (e.g. Excel). Organisations can make their own comparisons between data collected within their unit and the effectiveness indicators reported in this article and NADA intends building this function into NADAbase to assist the workforce to see how they are tracking in “real-time”. This information can then be used by organisations to help inform quality improvement initiatives [11].


Peter Kelly1, Suzie Hudson2

1Director, Centre for Psychological Practice and Research, School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia
2Clinical Director, Network of Alcohol and Other Drug Agencies, Sydney, Australia



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  3. Crits-Christoph P, Ring-Kurtz S, Hamilton JL, Lambert MJ, Gallop R, McClure B, et al. A preliminary study of the effects of individual patient-level feedback in outpatient substance abuse treatment programs. J Subst Abuse Treat 2012;42:301-9.
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  7. Kelly PJ, Deane FP, Davis EL, Hudson S, Robinson LD, Keane CA, et al. Routine outcome measurement in specialist non-government alcohol and other drug treatment services: Establishing effectiveness indicators for the NADAbase. Drug Alcohol Rev 2020 [Epub ahead of print].
  8. Kelly PJ, Robinson LD, Baker AL, Deane FP, Osborne B, Hudson S, et al. Quality of life of individuals seeking treatment at specialist non-government alcohol and other drug treatment services: A latent class analysis. J Subst Abuse Treat 2018;94:47-54.
  9. Kelly PJ, Robinson LD, Baker AL, Deane FP, McKetin R, Hudson S, et al. Polysubstance use in treatment seekers who inject amphetamine: Drug use profiles, injecting practices and quality of life. Addict Behav 2017;71:25-30.
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  11. McKay R, Coombs T, Duerden D. The art and science of using routine outcome measurement in mental health benchmarking. Austral Psych 2014;22:13-8.


A complimentary PDF of the article is available to APSAD members by emailing This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kelly PJ, Deane FP, Davis EL, Hudson S, Robinson LD, Keane CA, Hatton EL, Larance B. Routine outcome measurement in specialist non‐government alcohol and other drug treatment services: Establishing effectiveness indicators for the NADAbase. Drug Alcohol Rev 2020 [Epub ahead of print].