The Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs

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Alcohol marketing and social media: A challenge for public health control
Robin Room, Paula O'Brien
27 October 2020 | DOI:

Comprehensive Review

Communication of health risk in substance‐dependent populations: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials
Melvin C. W. Goh, Peter J. Kelly, Frank P. Deane, Dayle K. Raftery, Isabella Ingram
9 February 2021 | DOI:


Alcohol control policies in Former Soviet Union countries: A narrative review of three decades of policy changes and their apparent effects
Maria Neufeld, Anastacia Bobrova, Kairat Davletov, Mindaugas Štelemėkas, Relika Stoppel, Carina Ferreira‐Borges, João Breda, Jürgen Rehm
5 November 2020 | DOI:

Original Papers

Trends in cocaine use, markets and harms in Australia, 2003–2019
Nicola Man, Agata Chrzanowska, Olivia Price, Raimondo Bruno, Paul M. Dietze, Scott A. Sisson, Louisa Degenhardt, Caroline Salom, Leith Morris, Michael Farrell, Amy Peacock
24 February 2021 | DOI:

Awareness of fentanyl exposure and the associated overdose risks among people who inject drugs in a Canadian setting
Kanna Hayashi, Evan Wood, Huiru Dong, Jane A. Buxton, Nadia Fairbairn, Kora DeBeck, M.‐J. Milloy, Thomas Kerr
18 February 2021 | DOI:

Decline in alcohol consumption in Russia: Collectivity or polarisation?
Vadim Radaev, Yana Roshchina
15 February 2021 | DOI:

The association of acute alcohol use and dynamic suicide risk with variation in onward care after psychiatric crisis
John E. Robins, Nicola J. Kalk, Kezia R. Ross, Megan Pritchard, Vivienne Curtis, Katherine I. Morley
10 February 2021 | DOI:

The efficacy of health warnings and package branding on perceptions of cannabis products among youth and young adults
Cesar Leos‐Toro, Geoffrey T. Fong, David Hammond
4 February 2021 | DOI:

The Canadian Alcohol Policy Evaluation project: Findings from a review of provincial and territorial alcohol policies
Kate Vallance, Tim Stockwell, Ashley Wettlaufer, Clifton Chow, Norman Giesbrecht, Nicole April, Mark Asbridge Russell Callaghan Samantha Cukier, Geoff Hynes, Robert Mann, Robert Solomon, Gerald Thomas, Kara Thompson
4 February 2021 | DOI:

‘Very demanding. Extremely rewarding’: Exploring the co‐occurrence of burnout and engagement in alcohol and other drug workers
Natalie Skinner, Ann M. Roche
3 February 2021 | DOI:

Substance use and help‐seeking among justice‐involved young people in Queensland and Western Australia: A cross‐sectional survey of 14–17‐year‐olds
Megan L. Steele, Carla Meurk, Jaclyn Schess, Lorraine Yap, Jocelyn Jones, Scott Harden, Sophie Davison, Tony Butler, Ed Heffernan
2 February 2021 | DOI:

Understanding local government responses to alcohol‐related harm
Miranda Guizzo, Bernadette Ward, Claire Wilkinson, Hassan Vally, Sandra Kuntsche
1 February 2021 | DOI:

Substance use disorder and the baby boom generation: Does Berlin outpatient addiction care face a sustained change?
Sara Specht, Barbara Braun‐Michl, Larissa Schwarzkopf, Daniela Piontek, Nicki‐Nils Seitz, Manfred Wildner, Ludwig Kraus
28 January 2021 | DOI:

Young‐adult compared to adolescent onset of regular cannabis use: A 20‐year prospective cohort study of later consequences
Gary C. K. Chan, Denise Becker, Peter Butterworth, Lindsey Hines, Carolyn Coffey, Wayne Hall, George Patton
26 January 2021 | DOI:

Smokeless tobacco policy in Bangladesh: A stakeholder study of compatibility with the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
Eva Naznin, Olivia Wynne, Johnson George, Alexandra M. J. Denham, Mohammad E. Hoque, Abul H. Milton, Billie Bonevski, Kay Stewart
20 January 2021 | DOI:

Using administrative health data to estimate prevalence and mortality rates of alcohol and other substance‐related disorders for surveillance purposes
Christophe Huỳnh, Steve Kisely, Louis Rochette, Éric Pelletier, Didier Jutras‐Aswad, Alexandre Larocque, Marie‐Josée Fleury, Alain Lesage
11 January 2021 | DOI:

The prospective impact of 10‐day patron bans on crime in Queensland's largest entertainment precincts
Nicholas Taylor, Kerri Coomber, Renee Zahnow, Jason Ferris, Richelle Mayshak, Peter G. Miller
27 December 2020 | DOI:

Self‐care agency and self‐care practice in youth workers reduces burnout risk and improves compassion satisfaction
Karen T. Hallam, Danielle Leigh, Cassandra Davis, Nathan Castle, Jenny Sharples, James D. Collett
23 December 2020 | DOI:

Detection of synthetic cannabinoid adulteration in the unregulated drug supply in three Canadian settings
Lianping Ti, Samuel Tobias, Nazlee Maghsoudi, M.‐J. Milloy, Karen McDonald, Aaron Shapiro, Daniel Beriault, Cristiana Stefan, Mark Lysyshyn, Daniel Werb
22 December 2020 | DOI:

Is the theory of collectivity of drinking cultures valid across educational groups?
Jonas Landberg, Björn Trolldal, Thor Norström
22 December 2020 | DOI:

Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and HIV among people who inject drugs in Iran
Seyed Ramin Radfar, Pardis Nematollahi, Katayoun Tayeri, Hamidreza Dehghan, Majid Janani, Peter Higgs, Setareh Mohsenifar, Alireza Noroozi
20 December 2020 | DOI:

Alcohol retail privatisation in Canadian provinces between 2012 and 2017. Is decision making oriented to harm reduction?
Norman Giesbrecht, Ashley Wettlaufer, Tim Stockwell, Kate Vallance, Clifton Chow, Nicole April, Mark Asbridge, Russell Callaghan, Samantha Cukier, Geoff Hynes, Robert E. Mann, Robert Solomon, Gerald Thomas, Kara Thompson
14 December 2020 | DOI:

Are changes in binge drinking among European adolescents driven by changes in computer gaming?
Torleif Halkjelsvik, Geir S. Brunborg, Elin K. Bye
13 December 2020 | DOI:

On‐ and off‐licensed premises drinking behaviour among adults in the city of Tshwane, South Africa: An analysis of data from the International Alcohol Control study
Mukhethwa Londani, Neo K. Morojele, Catherine O. Egbe, Elmarie Nel, Petal Petersen Williams, Nadine Harker, Charles D. H. Parry
1 December 2020 | DOI:

Prevalence of drink‐driving in Thimphu, Bhutan: Targeted surveillance at sentinel sites
Tashi Tenzin, Roma Karki, Tashi Duba, Kinga Jamphel, Sonam Dhendup, Dil Kumar Subba, Gampo Dorji, Peter G. Miller, Jennie Connor, Daniel Barker, Kerry S. O'Brien, Kypros Kypri
1 December 2020 | DOI:

Online alcohol delivery is associated with heavier drinking during the first New Zealand COVID‐19 pandemic restrictions
Taisia Huckle, Karl Parker, Jose S. Romeo, Sally Casswell
30 November 2020 | DOI:

An examination of the extent to which drinking motives and problem alcohol consumption vary as a function of deprivation, gender and age
Derek Heim, Rebecca L. Monk, Adam W. Qureshi
26 November 2020 | DOI:

The effect of public opinion and politics on attitudes towards pill testing: Results from the 2019 Australian Election Study
Ian McAllister, Toni Makkai
22 November 2020 | DOI:

Public opinion and experiences of crime two and five years following the implementation of a targeted regulation of licensed premises in Newcastle, Australia
John Wiggers, Jenny Tindall, Rebecca K. Hodder, Karen Gillham, Melanie Kingsland, Christophe Lecathelinais
20 November 2020 | DOI:

Alcohol‐attributed disease burden in four Nordic countries between 2000 and 2017: Are the gender gaps narrowing? A comparison using the Global Burden of Disease, Injury and Risk Factor 2017 study
Emilie E. Agardh, Peter Allebeck, Pär Flodin, Peter Wennberg, Mats Ramstedt, Ann Kristin Knudsen, Simon Øverland, Jonas Minet Kinge, Mette C. Tollånes, Terje A. Eikemo, Jens Christoffer Skogen, Pia Mäkelä, Mika Gissler, Knud Juel, Kim Moesgaard Iburg, John J. McGrath, Mohsen Naghavi, Stein Emil Vollset, Emmanuela Gakidou, Anna‐Karin Danielsson
18 November 2020 | DOI:

Study drug use among university students in Western Australia: Results of a web survey and their policy and practice implications
Marina Nelson, Charmaine Jensen, Simon Lenton
15 November 2020 | DOI:

The socio‐environmental context of simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use among young adults: Examining day‐level associations
Ashley N. Linden‐Carmichael, Hannah K. Allen, Stephanie T. Lanza
13 November 2020 | DOI:

Factors associated with hepatitis C and HIV testing uptake among men who inject image and performance enhancing drugs
Vivian D. Hope, James McVeigh, Emma Begley, Rachel Glass, Claire Edmundson, Ellen Heinsbroek, Joseph Kean, John Campbell, Mark Whitfield, Gareth Morgan, Dean Acreman, Josie Smith
8 November 2020 | DOI:

Crystal methamphetamine use among young people entering custody: Prevalence, correlates and comorbidity
Sharlene Kaye, Amy Lewandowski, Julia Bowman, Michael F. Doyle
5 November 2020 | DOI:

Routine outcome measurement in specialist non‐government alcohol and other drug treatment services: Establishing effectiveness indicators for the NADAbase
Peter J. Kelly, Frank P. Deane, Esther L. Davis, Suzie Hudson, Laura D. Robinson, Carol A. Keane, Emma L. Hatton, Briony Larance
5 November 2020 | DOI:

The influence of child maltreatment on substance or alcohol use in 30‐year‐old adults: A birth cohort study
Steve Kisely, Lane Strathearn, Jake Najman
1 November 2020 | DOI:

Facilitators and barriers to integrating physical health care during treatment for substance use: A socio‐ecological analysis
Briony Osborne, Peter J. Kelly, Laura D. Robinson, Rowena Ivers, Frank P. Deane, Briony Larance
23 October 2020 | DOI:

Trends in the psychosocial characteristics of 11–15‐year‐olds who still drink, smoke, take drugs and engage in poly‐substance use in England
Melissa Oldham, Michael Livingston, Victoria Whitaker, Sarah Callinan, Hannah Fairbrother, Penny Curtis, Petra Meier, John Holmes
22 October 2020 | DOI: 

The prevalence of mental health disorders among young adults who use amphetamine‐type stimulants, compared to young adults who do not
Malithi R. Thoradeniya, Ellen L. Wessel, Davoud Pourmarzi, Jake M. Najman, Andrew Smirnov
19 October 2020 | DOI:


Moving away from piecemeal trends: The need for multiple data sources in drug use trend analyses
Joseph J. Palamar
18 February 2021 | DOI:

Evaluation of an alcohol policy measure employing a randomised controlled trial design: Why was it possible?
Ingeborg Rossow Maja Weemes Grøtting
18 December 2020 | DOI:

An innovative acute care based intervention to address the opioid crisis in a Canadian setting
Sameer Imtiaz, Kanna Hayashi, Seonaid Nolan
12 October 2020 | DOI:

Brief Reports

Non‐medical prescription opioid use and in‐hospital illicit drug use among people who use drugs
Gurjit S. Parmar, Kanna Hayashi, Seonaid Nolan, M.‐J. Milloy, Kora DeBeck, Hennady P. Shulha, Thomas Kerr, Lianping Ti
4 February 2021 | DOI:

Implications of addiction diagnosis and addiction beliefs for public stigma: A cross‐national experimental study
Samantha M. Rundle, John A. Cunningham, Christian S. Hendershot
25 January 2021 | DOI:

Managing opioid withdrawal precipitated by buprenorphine with buprenorphine
Bridget Oakley, Hester Wilson, Victoria Hayes, Nicholas Lintzeris
21 January 2021 | DOI:

Prevalence of drink‐driving in Thimphu, Bhutan: Targeted surveillance at sentinel sites
Tashi Tenzin, Roma Karki, Tashi Duba, Kinga Jamphel, Sonam Dhendup, Dil Kumar Subba, Gampo Dorji, Peter G. Miller, Jennie Connor, Daniel Barker, Kerry S. O'Brien, Kypros Kypri
1 December 2020 | DOI:

Contingency management for tobacco smoking during opioid addiction treatment: Implementation challenges
Tom S. Ainscough, Leonie S. Brose, John Strang, Ann McNeill
24 November 2020 | DOI:

Patterns of methamphetamine production among an international sample of methamphetamine ‘cooks’
Cheneal Puljević, Renee Zahnow, Isabella Benfer, Adam R. Winstock, Larissa J. Maier, Monica J. Barratt, Jason Ferris
10 November 2020 | DOI:

The acute and repeated effects of cigarette smoking and smoking‐related cues on impulsivity
Suky Martinez, Jermaine D. Jones, Nehal P. Vadhan, Laura Brandt, Sandra D. Comer, Adam Bisaga
2 November 2020 | DOI:


Special Issue - Beyond self-reports: ways to obtain more comprehensive insights into substance use events

How intoxicated are you? Investigating self and observer intoxication ratings in relation to blood alcohol concentration
Lauren A. Monds, Benjamin C. Riordan, Jayde A. M. Flett, Tamlin S. Conner, Paul Haber, Damian Scarf
24 January 2021 | DOI:

The value of identification scanner technology in monitoring and detecting banned patrons in entertainment precincts
Dominique de Andrade, Cheneal Puljević, Peter G. Miller, Nicholas Taylor, Ashlee Curtis, Jason Ferris
9 December 2020 | DOI:

Shooting shots: Estimating alcoholic drink sizes in real life using event‐level reports and annotations of close‐up picturesShooting shots: Estimating alcoholic drink sizes in real life using event‐level reports and annotations of close‐up pictures
Florian Labhart, Thanh‐Trung Phan, Daniel Gatica‐Perez, Emmanuel Kuntsche
17 November 2020 | DOI:

Combining transdermal and breath alcohol assessments, real‐time drink logs and retrospective self‐reports to measure alcohol consumption and intoxication across a multi‐day music festival
Thomas Norman, Amy Peacock, Stuart G. Ferguson, Emmanuel Kuntsche, Raimondo Bruno
10 November 2020 | DOI:

Feasibility and reliability of continuously monitoring alcohol use among female adolescents and young adults
Julie M. Croff, Micah L. Hartwell, Ashleigh L. Chiaf, Erica K. Crockett, Isaac J. Washburn
17 March 2020 | DOI:


Special Section - Alcohol trends and policies in the wider world

Heterogeneity in trends of alcohol use around the world: Do policies make a difference?
Jürgen Rehm, Thomas F. Babor, Sally Casswell, Robin Room
3 February 2021 | DOI:

Alcohol consumption, harms and policy developments in sub‐Saharan Africa: The case for stronger national and regional responses
Neo K. Morojele, Emeka W. Dumbili, Isidore S. Obot, Charles D. H. Parry
25 February 2021 | DOI:

Comprehensive analysis of alcohol policies in the Latin America and the Caribbean
María Elena Medina‐Mora, Maristela Monteiro, Claudia Rafful, Itzel Samano
24 January 2021 | DOI:

Alcohol industry, corporate social responsibility and country features in Latin America
Karina Conde, Raquel Inés Peltzer, Daniela Pantani, Ilana Pinsky, Mariana Cremonte
6 November 2020 | DOI:

Alcohol consumption in India: A rising burden and a fractured response
Gopalkrishna Gururaj, Melur S. Gautham, Banavaram A. Arvind
30 September 2020 | DOI:


Special Issue - Methamphetamine

A prospective cohort of people who use methamphetamine in Melbourne and non‐metropolitan Victoria, Australia: Baseline characteristics and correlates of methamphetamine dependence
Brendan Quinn, Bernadette Ward, Paul A. Agius, Rebecca Jenkinson, Matthew Hickman, Keith Sutton, Cristal Hall, Rebecca McKetin, Michael Farrell, Reece Cossar, Paul M. Dietze
11 November 2020 | DOI:

Parent and child co‐resident status among an Australian community‐based sample of methamphetamine smokers
Bernadette Ward, Rebecca Kippen, Andrea Reupert, Darryl Maybery, Paul A. Agius, Brendan Quinn, Rebecca Jenkinson, Matthew Hickman, Keith Sutton, Rachael Goldsmith, Paul M. Dietze
8 September 2020 | DOI:

Clinical and demographic characteristics of people who smoke versus inject crystalline methamphetamine in Australia: Findings from a pharmacotherapy trial
Rebecca McKetin, Brendan Quinn, Peter Higgs, Michael Berk, Olivia M. Dean, Alyna Turner, Peter J. Kelly, Dan I. Lubman, Gregory Carter, Amanda L. Baker, Victoria Manning, Tamsin Thomas, Ramez Bathish, Dayle Raftery, Lucy Saunders, Anna Wrobel, Alcyone Meehan, Barbara Sinclair, David Reid, Shalini Arunogiri, Harry Hill, Frank Cordaro, Paul M. Dietze
6 October 2020 | DOI:


Letters to the Editor

Keeping the alcohol and other drug workforce resilient after the COVID‐19 emergency
Hoiyan Karen Li
20 November 2020 | DOI:

Acute tramadol withdrawal: An unusual cause of severe acute behavioural disturbance
Keith Harris, Georgia R. Harburg, Katherine Z. Isoardi
26 October 2020 | DOI:

The alcohol industry ‘smart affordability’ strategy is to reach the poor
Daniela Pantani, Zila M. Sanchez, Claire Greene, Ilana Pinsky
19 October 2020 | DOI:

The development and implementation of a rapid‐access long‐acting injectable buprenorphine clinic in metropolitan Melbourne during the COVID‐19 pandemic
Adam Straub, Adam Pastor, Martyn Lloyd‐Jones, Helen O'Neill, Yvonne Bonomo
8 September 2020 | DOI:



Clinician's Corner - December 2020

DAR Front Cover

Clinician's Corner | December 2020      

Self-managing illicit stimulant use: A qualitative study with patients receiving injectable opioid agonist treatment




Among people with opioid use disorder (OUD) receiving oral (e.g. methadone) or injectable (i.e. diacetylmorphine or hydromorphone) opioid agonist treatment (iOAT), illicit stimulant use (i.e. cocaine and/or methamphetamine) is prevalent, and has been shown to be associated with early treatment dropout and continued opioid use. Research on iOAT has focus on the effectiveness of the opioid medications, studying primary outcomes such as the use of illicit opioids and treatment retention. Less attention however has been paid to patterns of illicit stimulant use and patients’ experiences of stimulant use while engaged in iOAT. 

To partly address this gap, we conducted one-on-one interviews with 31 patients who reported the use of cocaine and/or methamphetamine, and who were receiving iOAT at a community clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants taking part in the study had been regularly injecting illicit opioids and injecting or smoking illicit stimulants for approximately 15 years prior to being engaged in iOAT, and had multiple prior oral OAT attempts. Interviews were conducted at a time when dextroamphetamine was beginning to be prescribed at the clinic for the treatment of stimulant use disorder, and the few patients that had attempted this medication were invited to take part in this study. Data collection and analysis followed an iterative approach of coding, searching for meaning, and returning to data collection to saturate categories and explicate relationships between them.

These interviews revealed that iOAT provided access to a safe and stable source of opioids, and connection to care. This served as a foundation from which participants developed new goals around their stimulant use, with most desiring to either reduce or stop their use. The central study finding focused on how participants worked toward these goals, through the process of “self-managing illicit stimulant use”, which was made up of two key areas of effort pursued by participants:

  • “Taking control” of stimulant use”, by practicing strategies to regulate their use (e.g. developing rules around timing or frequency of use), and by engaging in meaningful alternative activities (e.g. employment, leisure); and
  • “Mobilising support”, in the form of both social and treatment support. In the context of a contaminated illicit drug supply and criminalisation of drug use, participants outlined significant concern for harm, and desired support in the form of access to safe alternatives to illicit stimulant use. Some patients had accessed dextroamphetamine and reported that it helped to reduce their craving for and use of illicit stimulants, while others desired alternative prescribed stimulant options.

Self-management models derive from the chronic disease literature, and have long emphasized the role of simultaneous patient efforts and system-level support, for example in the form of medication or treatment. In the context of COVID-19, where individual-level efforts (e.g. access to alternative activities and connection with peers) have been greatly limited by physical distancing restrictions, the imperative for system-level support is even greater. As the evidence supporting prescription stimulants (e.g. dextroamphetamine) for the treatment of stimulant use disorder continues to grow, patients who desire access to these medications cannot be left behind. Efforts to incorporate dextroamphetamine and other stimulant medications into care can be guided by patients, recognising them as experts in the management of their stimulant use.


Heather Palis1,2 and Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes1,2

1Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Providence Health Care, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada

2School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada


A complimentary PDF of the article is available to APSAD members by emailing This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Palis H, Harrison S, MacDonald S, Marsh DC, Schechter MT, Oviedo‐Joekes E. Self‐managing illicit stimulant use: A qualitative study with patients receiving injectable opioid agonist treatment. Drug Alcohol Rev 2020;39:914-23.